Vitamin C (Ascorbate) Vitamin C as an ascorbate is an essential nutrient required for metabolic reactions. Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant, an ascorbate peroxidase substrate, an enzyme cofactor for the biosynthesis of many biochemicals and an electron donor for enzymes. The active form of vitamin C is the ascorbate ion, a strong reducing agent that gets converted to its oxidized form, L-dehydroascorbate in the body by enzymes and glutathione. It is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose, which naturally occurs either attached to a hydrogen ion (ascorbic acid), or to a mineral ion (a mineral ascorbate). The biological halflife for vitamin C is about 30 minutes in blood plasma.
Vitamin B-1 (as Benfothiamine) An essential vitamin necessary for proper metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy in the body. Thiamine also functions in the nerves, brain and heart, digestive and the whole nervous system, and is important for the maintenance of healthy, clear, luminous eyes, hair and skin. Thiamine has a vital neurological function in the nervous system independent of its coenzyme role. An active form of thiamine in the body is thiamine pyrophosphate (AKA thiamine diphosphate or cocarboxylase). Stimulation of nerves results in the release of thiamine monophosphate and free thiamine into the associated medium with accompanying decrease of cellular thiamine pyrophosphate and thiamine triphosphate. In the brain the concentration of thiamine is quick to release, but slow to replenish. Thiamine triphosphate (another internal form) is involved with nerve impulses via a Na+ and K+ gradient.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin, whose derivatives play essential roles in energy metabolism in the cell and DNA repair. Niacin is a critical essential coenzyme for anti-stress, helping the body in general healing. Niacin assists in the functioning of the nervous system; in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; and in the production of hydrochloric acid for the digestive system.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal 5 phosphate) Vitamin B-6 is comprised of three natural organic compounds; pyridoxal (Pyridoxal 5 phosphate), pyridoxamine and pyridoxine. Pyridoxal 5 phosphate is the bioactive metabolite of the coenzyme Vitamin B-6 involved in many important enzymatic reactions. Pyridoxil 5'-phosphate acts as a coenzyme in all transamination reactions, and in some decarboxylation and deamination reactions of amino acids.
L-Tyrosine Tyrosine is a conditionally essential amino acid which works in the presence of Ascorbate (vitamin C). Tyrosine is a nutritional co-precursor of thyroid hormones and some neurochemicals called catecholamines, which are natural hormonal substances that act as extra cellular messengers between the brain, central nervous tissue and endocrine system. Tyrosine is a necessary constituent of normal brain function. Tyrosine passes through the brain-blood barrier, reacting positively with the BCAA's (branched chain amino acids).
St. Johnâs Wort St. Johnâs Wort has been used medicinally since Roman times and is now one of the most popular herbs in the United States, especially among women. Originally used as an aid to speed healing of wounds, it is now commonly used for its calming effect. St. Johnâs Wort is reported to help ease tension and anxiety and may help with some cases of mild depression.
GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) GABA is known to be an active a1- & a2-adrenergic antagonist, helping the body to relax the smooth muscle of arteries and veins. It acts via the GABA-A and GABA-B cell receptors to prevent neuronal depolarization and firing of an action potential occurring in muscles, stopping the muscle from contracting. An action potential is a rapid, transient, self-propagating electrical excitation of the membrane of electrically excitable cells, known as a spike or nerve impulse (in neurons). Action potentials occur in nerve, muscle, and neuroendocrine cells and are generated and propagated through the actions of voltage-gated ion channels. An action potential is essentially a brief (approx. 1 ms long), regenerative change in the membrane potential which occurs in electrically excitable cells such as the smooth muscle in veins and arteries. Action potentials are digital signals which encode information as a temporal sequence. With GABA, G-protein ompete for receptor binding sites (the largest family of cell-surface receptors) cin smooth muscle, ensuring that smooth muscle of arteries and veins relaxes, and that action potentials do not fire. As the smooth muscle relaxes, arteries and veins begin to vasodilate, increasing their circumference, allowing more blood to flow which subsequently reduces blood pressure throughout the circulatory system. GABA, a quasi-amino acid, may be one of the most powerful inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system operating as a chemical messenger to its neighbors. GABA is important in helping the body to naturally regulate nerve function and enhance the ability of vitamin B3 (niacin) to act. GABA, one of the three musketeers (GABA, Glutamine [GAM] and Glutamic acid [GA]), is believed to be capable of providing needed nutrition and energy for the brain. GABA has been found to be deficient in clinical and experimental seizure disorders and is the most widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA is helpful in bringing calmness to the body, promoting tranquility and peace in times of stress and anxiety.
L-Theanine L-theanine is involved in forming GABA, and has anti-stress effects by blocking glutamate receptors in the brain, reducing stress responses.
L-Lysine L-Lysine an essential amino acid as a necessary building block for all protein in the body, carries a positive charge and facilitate the absorption of calcium from the small intestine. Lysine strengthens the thymus which subsequently improves immune system parameters and is important in the body's production of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
L-Glycine Glycine is a non essential amino acid utilized by the liver in the synthesis of other nonessential amino acids and part of the tripeptide glutathione. L-Glycine has natural calming properties as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, readily and easily passing the brain-blood barrier, working in conjunction with GABA and Taurine as a anticonvulsant.
L-Arginine Arginine is an essential amino acid to children, and relatively essential to adults. Arginine is secreted by the anterior pituitary glands and aids in the stimulation and release of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) from the pituitary. Arginine is rapidly interconverted with ornithine.
L-Glutamine L-Glutamine as an inhibitory neurotransmitter is taken up by glial cells (or glia) which are the supporting, non-neuronal cells of the central nervous system (CNS).
L-Carnosine L-carnosine, or "carnosine" is an amino acid dipeptidemade up of histidine and beta-alanine. Carnosine naturally occurs in the brain, heart, muscles, and skin in high concentrations. Carnosine has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress. It can oppose glycation and it can chelate divalent metal ions.
Acantho Root Extract (Eleutherococcus senticosus) Eleuthero root has active constituents that contain steroid-like compounds (eleutherosides) that counteract the alarm state of stress response.
l-Tryptophan L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid that breaks down into several different metabolites in the body. L-tryptophan is converted to 5-HTP, which is then converted to serotoninâa neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, sleep and appetite. L-tryptophan breaks down into melatonin, a hormone that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle, and the B-vitamin, niacin, which helps maintain healthy function of the nervous system, digestive system and skin.