Calcium Mineral Complex (CMC) Calcium (Ca) is an essential alkaline nutrient element required by every cell in the body and is the most abundent mineral in the body. Calcium (Ca) is an essential alkaline nutrient element required by every cell in the body and is the most abundent mineral in the body. Calcium (Coral carbonate) Calcium (Ca) is an essential alkaline nutrient element required by every cell in the body and is the most abundent mineral in the body. Calcium (Ca) is an essential alkaline nutrient element required by every cell in the body and is the most abundent mineral in the body. Magnesium (Glycinate Chelate) The element magnesium is an essential mineral involved in over 350 biochemical actions in the body. Magnesium relaxes smooth muscle, helps dilate blood vessels and maintains blood flow. Methylsulfonyl Methane (MSM) MSM is a bioavailable naturally occurring, dietary source of sulfur and a metabolite of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) Glucosamine (Complex) Glucosamine is an amino sugar is a constituent of cartilage proteoglycans, required for the synthesis of glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). These are carbohydrate-containing compounds found in tendons, ligaments, cartilage, synovial fluid, mucous membranes, structures in the eye, blood vessels and heart valves. Potassium (from Glucosamine KnaCl, Amino acid chelate) The essential alkali mineral Potassium is the major cation inside the cells and important in the maintainence of fluid and electrolyte balance in all body systems. Vitamin C Ascorbate Vitamin C as an ascorbate is an essential nutrient required for metabolic reactions. Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant, an ascorbate peroxidase substrate, an enzyme cofactor for the biosynthesis of many biochemicals and an electron donor for enzymes. The active form of vitamin C is the ascorbate ion, a strong reducing agent that gets converted to its oxidized form, L-dehydroascorbate in the body by enzymes and glutathione. It is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose, which naturally occurs either attached to a hydrogen ion (ascorbic acid), or to a mineral ion (a mineral ascorbate). The biological halflife for vitamin C is about 30 minutes in blood plasma. Zinc (Monomethionine) The second most ocurring essential nutrient is zinc. Zinc is involved in about 3000 different protein complexes in the body. Manganese (citrate) Manganese is an essential trace nutrient whose ions function as cofactors for a number of enzyme activities and is required in all our body's cells and our friendly bacteria lactobacilli. Boron (Amino Acid Chelate) The element Boron is an essential mineral. Boron plays a role in cell-membrane functions that influence response to hormone action, trans-membrane signaling and trans-membrane movement of regulatory ions (i.e. parathyroid secretes a hormone that contains boron). Boron acts as a metabolic regulator in several enzymatic systems (i.e. boron inhibit the activity of serine protease enzymes). Copper (Glycinate Chelate) Copper is an essential nutrient found primarily in the bloodstream, as a co-factor in various enzymes, and in copper-based body pigments. Zinc and copper compete for absorption in the digestive tract so a dietary 10:1 balance must be maintained to prevent a deficiency. Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) The sun’s ultraviolet rays penetrate the skin, and, through a local chemical reaction followed by systemic absorption and subsequent metabolism, a prohormone called 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is eventually converted into circulating vitamin D. Vitamin D is a fat soluble prohormone (a broken-open steroids called a secosteroid), that is converted in the liver and kidney to become the hormone 1,25-D (physiologically active form of a protein bound vitamin D). Vitamin D is necessary for utilization of calcium and phosphorus and iin the body as a hormone. The two important forms of vitamin D are cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), which is identical to that derived from a cholesterol molecule and synthesized by sunlight on the skin and ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2), a plant analogue derived from the diet. Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) a natural dietary secosteroid to our body's internal 1,25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 is essential for bone growth and maintenance of bone density.